Parenting Styles Theory

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Parenting Styles Theory – Pretend you are a psychologist who has been invited to speak at a parent-teacher conference. The purpose of this meeting is to inform and educate parents about what they have learned about their children’s mental development.

1) First decide which of the main developmental periods you will describe: a) infancy, b) childhood, c) childhood, or d) adolescence.

Parenting Styles Theory

2) Explain to parents what kinds of physical, cognitive, and/or behavioral changes they can expect during the development you provide.

Developmental Theories And Theorists

3) Also, educate parents about important topics, concepts, and/or research related to the developmental area you describe.

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Emotional well-being is important for young people with various changes (physical, emotional, educational and social) and dynamic family dynamics. These changes can lead to problems that can lead to stress, which leads to mental health problems (Johnson and Greenberg, 2013). Kim-Cohen et al. (2003) also indicated that mental disorders often occur in late childhood and adolescence. This is why it is important to maintain the mental health of young people. Young people with good mental health are usually physically and mentally healthy. They can avoid Internet and drug abuse (Saha et al., 2014), achieve better academic results, have better interpersonal skills, and use a better way to cope with life’s problems (Shek and Lin, 2014). That good behavior can continue in the future, because young people are happier when they grow up.

One theory that affects human life is Self-Determination Theory (SDT), which states that three human psychological needs, namely the need for relatedness, competence, and independence, can be satisfied or prevented. Meeting relational needs makes people feel they have good relationships with others, meeting professional needs makes people feel productive, and meeting autonomy needs will encourage people to control their choices (Rian and Deci, 2017). Positive emotions are achieved as a result of satisfying all needs. Many studies have shown a link between positive outcomes and satisfaction, in which psychological needs are associated with a sense of importance and power (Chen et al., 2015b; Pinkuart, 2016), life satisfaction (DeHaan et al., 2016) and other important positive factors. . . results (Sheldon and Bettencourt, 2002).

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Conversely, frustration in social needs can make people feel rejected and isolated. Failure to meet competence needs leads to feelings of inferiority and helplessness, and frustration of the need for autonomy leads to feelings of coercion (Rian and Deci, 2017). Vansteenkiste and Ryan (2013) suggest that mental illness results from frustrated needs. In addition, the effects of depression on psychological problems include symptoms of eating disorders (Boone et al., 2014), anxiety and somatization (Cordeiro et al., 2016), and insomnia (Campbell et al., 2017).

Originally, need satisfaction was identified as an unstructured bottom-up construct (Sheldon et al., 1996; Deci et al., 2001; Jang et al., 2009). However, further research has found that although low need satisfaction is associated with good health, it is not directly associated with disease (Rian et al., 1995; Adie et al., 2008; Quested and Duda, 2010). Therefore, Bartholomew et al. (2011) proposed a dual approach to distinguish between need (dissatisfaction) and need frustration. In other words, satisfaction and emotional needs and frustration are defined as multidimensional. Vansteenkiste and Ryan (2013) support this view, stating that the relationship between emotional satisfaction and depression is complex, although emotional satisfaction is not a condition for the existence of emotional depression. On the other hand, frustration means lack of satisfaction of needs.

So far, SDT researchers agree that need satisfaction and frustration are different constructs, as they have different origins and consequences (Chen et al., 2015a; Haerens et al., 2015; Jang et al., 2016; Bartholomev et al., 2018). ).). Chen et al. (2015a) also developed a BPNSFS scale that considers need satisfaction and lack of depression as separate constructs. Research on BPNSFS across different groups and languages ​​supports the idea that need gratification and frustration are separate constructs; therefore, their measurement and interpretation must be different. Finally, since the importance of satisfaction and depression are considered different structures, it is possible to find that people have high satisfaction and high disappointment at the same time (Cordeiro et al., 2016; Nishimura and Suzuki, 2016; Valle et al. ., 2018; Rodrigues et al. , 2019; Liga et al., 2020).

Whether psychological needs are met or hindered in adolescence, which are closely related to parents, the social environment is known to have a significant impact on development, functioning and well-being (Costa et al., 2019), as well as social status. diseases of young people. Several studies have shown the impact of parenting on the well-being of young people. Niemiec et al. (2006), for example, suggest that parental support influences youth well-being, while Wimsatt et al. (2013) that there is a relationship between parental involvement and positive affect. However, studies have also found that birth control can affect the health of young people. For example, King et al. (2018) found that poor supervision/monitoring, inconsistent punishment, and physical punishment were associated with depressive symptoms. In addition, the high risk of suicide among young people increases in relation to parental behavior.

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The influence of parents on their children can be understood in three areas: parenting goal (the goals parents promote), parenting behavior (the mental state of the family), and parenting behavior to achieve the goals. Darling and Steinberg, 1993). Parenting and parenting are often used interchangeably. However, it should be noted that the former focuses on how parents are raised, while the latter focuses on what parents do (Mphamvu, 2013). Since the 1940s, research has focused on parenting styles rather than parenting practices, which cannot predict individual differences in children’s social/psychological development (Orlanski, 1949).

Parenting style can be analyzed with two main methods: a method for counting individual parenting styles and a comparative method for combining dimensions of parenting in parenting styles (Mphamvu, 2013). Based on a comprehensive review of the literature on parenting standards, Skinner et al. (2005) proposed six concepts of parenting: warmth, structure, independent support, rejection, confusion, and coercion. Warmth emphasizes feelings of love, unconditional love and emotional support; its architecture prioritizes clear expression and appropriate boundaries, and emphasizes the independent element by providing opportunities for free expression of feelings and thoughts. Instead, resistance is often characterized by negative and hostile words expressed by parents, chaos is characterized by instability of parental rules and behavior, and coercion is characterized by complete parental control.

Regarding parenting types, Baumrind’s typological approach is considered one of the most popular theories that combines two orthogonal aspects of parenting: responsiveness and necessity (Darling and Steinberg, 1993; Martinez et al., 2019; Martinez-Escudero et al. establishment of the following requirements and assessment and punishment (Baumrind, 1991; Garcia et al., 2020) Responsibility is demonstrated through intentional actions to encourage individuality, self-control, and self-affirmation while valuing the child’s personality (Baumrind, 1991).; Garcia et al., 2020) A combination of high demand and high responsibility creates a permissive parenting style, a combination of high stress and low responsiveness creates a controlling parenting style, and a combination of high responsibility and low stress creates permissive parenting. style (Baurind, 2013).

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