Four Parenting Styles


Four Parenting Styles – “These four categories define parenting styles based on the variation of two main factors: warmth (responsiveness) and control (demanding).” ↓ Share Share Share from Facebook Tweet Share from Twitter PIN IT Share from Pinterest

What kind of parent are you? In the field of psychology, experts today recognize four different parenting styles: authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and neglectful. Different approaches have unique strengths and weaknesses. Let’s look at how each style affects children and can affect their risk of anxiety.

Four Parenting Styles

In the 1960s, psychologist Diana Baumrind conducted research on 100 preschool children and their parents, and with her observations, she distinguished between three different parenting methods (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive), to which psychologists Eleanor McCoby and John Martin later added a fourth category. . (negligence or irrelevance). These four categories define parenting styles based on the variation of two main factors: warmth (responsiveness) and control (demanding). Authoritarian parents are high on control and low on warmth. Forced upbringing is high in both aspects. Permissive parenting has little control but lots of warmth. And parental neglect is low in both aspects. The characteristics of each parenting style are listed below:

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Authoritarian parents are high on control and low on warmth. By taking on the role of disciplinarian, the authoritarian parent demands respect with an emphasis on obedience. They are often strict and punitive and demand that their children follow instructions without question. These types of parents usually use expressions like “do as I say, not as I do” or “because I said so”. Although heavy on criticism, they rarely give praise or affection, which often results in children becoming less independent and fearful of their parents.

Forced parenting is high on warmth and control. Along with maintaining a supportive and nonjudgmental environment, parents can also assert their control and leadership through boundaries and fair discipline. Parents want their children to become independent people and they often see compromise as the best way. Children are allowed to express their own opinions, as long as they do so respectfully.

Permissive parenting has little control but lots of warmth. Without many restrictions, children are free to do whatever they want without fear of disciplinary action. Permissive parents do not want to disappoint their children and enjoy the idea of ​​being their child’s best friend.

And neglectful parents have little warmth and control. Neglectful parents show their child little love and affection and little uninvolved guidance and support. With little structure in the home, neglectful parents often have a distant relationship with their children as children learn that they cannot rely on their parents for support.

Table 8 From The Parenting Styles And Dimensions Questionnaire: A Reconceptualization And Validation By Ashley

Since Baumrind first published his research, much research has been done on the positive and negative effects of different parenting methods on children. Here are the pros and cons of each style as determined by experts, starting with what is considered the most damaging:

The general consensus about parental neglect is that it has a negative effect on children. Parents of this type are so detached in their children’s lives that they make almost no demands on them, but offer no affection or warmth. Although this parenting style can lead to a more secure child’s attachment style, which can be a positive outcome, children of uncaring parents often have low self-esteem and poor social skills because they have not learned how to properly interact with their parents. It can also lead to them being emotionally poorer or detached in future relationships. It is important to note that sometimes neglectful parenting is unintentional and a direct result of a parent being overburdened or struggling with a mental or substance abuse disorder. A parent can also be neglectful because it is raised by neglectful parents. Parental neglect should also not be confused with the initial distress or separation a mother may feel in the postpartum period, where she is encouraged to talk to a doctor to address her concerns.

Authoritarian parents set high standards and demand compliance, which gives children the structure they need and can set them up to be incredibly focused and determined to do what is “right.” But the lack of warmth and care of authoritarian parents for their children can cause rebellion and resentment towards strict parenting. Children of authoritarian parents often have low self-esteem, poor social skills, and high levels of depression because they never feel free to express their opinions or stand up for themselves. If harsh punishment is used in the home, children may also be vulnerable to violence or aggression with their peers or later in life. Children of authoritarian parents are also less creative because they are always told to follow the rules and never allowed to think outside the box.

Permissive parents do not make high demands on their children, but show them a lot of affection. Although this type of parenting involves warm, loving behavior toward children, it also tends to lack the necessary discipline, boundaries, and standards for behavior and academic achievement. While children of permissive parents may have higher self-esteem, emotional closeness to their parents, and a greater willingness to be creative, they may also feel free to engage in risky behaviors. They can also be disrespectful to others due to the lack of boundaries they have at home.

Parenting In Four Styles: Which One Is Better For Your Child?

Researchers agree that public parenting usually combines the best of both worlds. Qualified parents show their children warmth and affection while setting certain boundaries and high expectations. Children of authoritative parents often grow up feeling more powerful, louder and more meaningful. Since their parents are neither too lenient nor too strict, children value respect, responsibility and honesty, which sets them up for success at school and at home.

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Some of these parenting styles can affect the likelihood that your child will exhibit anxiety. Parental neglect, the lack of parental care in any sense, is associated with children exhibiting greater fear, anxiety and stress, as well as delinquent behavior. Coercive parenting, where parents pressure children to succeed and meet high standards without providing real emotional support, is now associated with the possibility of anxiety disorders, where the constant pressure of high demands causes children to “push” beyond the norm. Permissive parents, on the other side of the pendulum, let the child choose so much that it can also cause anxiety, as children struggle with difficulty and uncertainty in the void of adult guidance. At the end of the day, public parenting is probably the best thing for children. With a combination of love, nurturing interests, firm boundaries, and guidance for children as they learn to navigate life, religious parenting is the least likely to contribute to child anxiety.

What is your parenting style? Remember that these categories are generalizations and you cannot fit exactly into one approach. However, keep in mind that the official model is probably the most useful for reducing anxiety, you may make changes in your approach that will improve your expression of warmth, increase your demands – or both! If you tend to be a permissive parent, remember that schedule, structure, and reasonable needs are helpful for children, especially when it comes to issues like regular bedtimes and controlled screen time, which affect physical and mental health. If you tend to be the more demanding parent, remember to balance those demands with lots of love, hugs, unplanned vacations together, and sincere praise for every job well done.

Parenting Styles In Psychology: Which Is The Best?

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Erica Garza is a writer and essayist from Los Angeles. He has a master’s degree in foreign affairs from Columbia University and a degree in narrative therapy. Her articles have appeared in TIME, Health, Glamour, Good Housekeeping,