Attachment Theory Parenting Styles

Attachment Theory Parenting Styles – Attachment styles refer to attachment patterns that people learn as children and carry over into their adult relationships. They are usually attributed to the type of care received during childhood.

This concept includes the trust that the attachment figure is available as a safe base from which to freely explore the world when not in distress, and as a safe haven from which to seek support, protection, and comfort when in distress. It is included.

Attachment Theory Parenting Styles

The four attachment styles include secure, preoccupied (anxious toward the child), dismissive (avoidant toward the child), and fearful (disorganized toward the child).

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In humans, the behavioral attachment system does not end in infancy or even childhood. Rather, it is active throughout life, and individuals derive comfort from the physical and mental expressions of those closest to them (Bowlby, 1969).

There appears to be a continuum between early attachment styles and the quality of romantic relationships in adulthood.

This idea is based on an internal working model in which an infant’s primary attachment forms the template for future relationships.

Ainsworth’s Strange Situation Ainsworth proposed the “sensitivity hypothesis,” which states that the more responsive a mother is to her baby during the first few months of life, the more secure the baby’s attachment will be.

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To test this, he designed a “strange situation” to examine children’s attachment security in the context of their relationship with their caregivers.

The child and the mother experience a series of situations in an unfamiliar room. The procedural consists of his eight episodes, each about three minutes long, featuring mothers, children, and strangers, parting ways, and reuniting.

Mary Ainsworth categorizes babies into one of her three attachment styles. Avoidance of anxiety (“A”), safety (“B”), or ambiguous anxiety (“C”).

Each type of attachment style consists of a set of attachment behavioral strategies used to achieve a sense of closeness and security with the caregiver.

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From an evolutionary perspective, an infant’s attachment classification (A, B, or C) represents an adaptive response to characteristics of the caregiving environment.

Ainsworth’s maternal sensitivity hypothesis posits that a child’s attachment style depends on the behavior the mother exhibits toward her child.

Attachment theory, developed by Bowlby to explain the emotional bond between infants and caregivers, influences our understanding of romantic relationships.

According to John Bowlby (1969), subsequent relationships are shaped by early attachment styles (secure It is more likely to be a continuation of the secure attachment style and the insecure attachment style. same. Even in the relationships that followed.

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In other words, there is a continuum between early attachment experiences and later relationships. This is known as the continuity hypothesis.

According to the continuity hypothesis, childhood experiences with attachment figures are maintained over time and are used to guide perceptions of the social world and future interactions with others.

However, there is evidence that attachment styles are variable and show variation across the lifespan (Waters, Weinfield, & Hamilton, 2000).

Therefore, compared to a single internal model that generalizes across relationships, each type of relationship may consist of a different working model, and although a person feels attached to their parents, they may may be feeling anxious.

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For example, the top-level model consists of beliefs and expectations for all types of relationships, and the lower-level models contain general rules for specific relationships, such as romantic relationships or parent-child relationships, which are Supported by a model of specific events in the relationship.

Adult attachment styles describe people’s sense of security and trust in close relationships, their fear of rejection and desire for intimacy, and their preference for independence and interpersonal distance.

Attachment style consists of perceptions about self (“I am worthy of being loved”) and others (“I can rely on others in times of stress”).

Here, an individual has positive or negative beliefs about herself and also positive or negative beliefs about others, resulting in one of her four adult attachment styles. It’s possible.

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The other model can also be conceptualized as a dimension of avoidant attachment. This corresponds to the level of discomfort a person feels regarding intimacy and psychological dependence.

Alternatively, self-models can be conceptualized as an aspect of attachment anxiety related to self-esteem and beliefs about one’s acceptance or rejection by others (Collins & Allard, 2001).

Bartholomew and Horowitz proposed four attachment styles for an adult’s working model of self and other, including secure, negative, preoccupied, and fearful.

Securely attached adults tend to have positive images of themselves and of others. This means having a sense of self-worth and an expectation that others will generally respond with acceptance.

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Secure attachment is a type of attachment that is observed in strange situations. This type of attachment occurs because the mother meets the emotional needs of her baby.

Children with secure attachments explore their environment using their mother as a secure base. They experienced moderate distress when their mother left the room (separation anxiety) and sought contact with her mother when she returned.

These people tend to express their feelings and thoughts openly to others, feel comfortable asking others for help, and feel comfortable with others depending on them ( Cassidy, 1994).

Adults who display a secure attachment style value their relationships and emphasize the impact they have on their personality.

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Specifically, although many secure adults may indeed experience negative attachment-related events, they may evaluate people and events objectively and place positive value on relationships in general.

Stable lovers characterize their most important romantic relationships as happy and reliable. They can support their partner even if the partner makes a mistake.

Their relationships also tend to be long-lasting. Stable lovers believe that romantic feelings may wax and wane, but romantic love never disappears.

Statistical analysis found that stable lovers had warmer relationships with their parents during childhood.

Pdf) Adult Attachment And Parenting Styles

People with obsessions (called anxiety disorders when referring to children) have negative self-images and positive images of others. That is, they feel worthless, but generally evaluate others positively.

Therefore, they strive for acceptance of themselves by trying to gain recognition and recognition from relationships with those closest to them. They also require higher levels of contact and intimacy in their relationships with others.

Anxious attachment is a type of attachment observed in strange situations and is also known as resistant anxiety or anxious ambivalence.

Children with this type of attachment cling to their mothers in new situations and are unwilling to explore, indicating that they do not trust their mothers.

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They become very stressed when separated from their mother. When their mother returns, they are willing to meet her and seek comfort, but they are not comforted and may also show signs of anger towards their mother.

This type of attachment style occurs because the mother’s behavior is inconsistent, sometimes meeting her baby’s needs and sometimes ignoring her emotional needs.

These people crave intimacy, but are anxious about whether other romantic partners will meet their emotional needs. You may feel insecure about your autonomy and independence.

They may also feel distressed if they interpret the perceptions and values ​​of others as dishonest, or if they fail to respond adequately.

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Their attachment systems are prone to hyperactivation during times of stress, leading to heightened emotions and increased overdependence on others (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2003).

Busy lovers characterize their most important romantic relationships by obsession, a desire for reciprocity and oneness, emotional ups and downs, extreme sexual attraction and jealousy.

Busy lovers often believe that they fall in love easily, but they also admit that finding lasting love can be difficult.

A negative attachment style is exhibited by adults who have a positive self-image and a negative image of others. Your internal working model is based on avoidant attachments formed in childhood.

Attachment And Parenting Styles

Children with this type of attachment do not use their mother as a secure base. They do not feel stressed about being separated from their caregivers and do not feel joy when their mother returns. They showed a strange bit of anxiety.

They prefer to avoid close relationships and intimacy with others in order to maintain a sense of independence and invincibility. This means that they struggle with close relationships and value autonomy and independence (Cassidy, 1994).

Negative and avoidant adults deny experiences of relationship-related distress, generally downplay the importance of attachment, and view others as untrustworthy.

According to Dr. Julie Smith, clinical psychologist, these are signs of an avoidant attachment style in adult relationships.

Secure Vs. Insecure Attachment

Jealous lovers are characterized by fear of intimacy, emotional ups and downs, and jealousy. They believe that romantic love is rarely long-lasting, that it is difficult to fall in love, and that they are often unsure of their feelings toward their romantic partner (Hazan & Shaver, 1987).

Seeking closeness is thought to be unlikely to reduce distress, and as a result the attachment system is deliberately disabled, suppressing support-seeking and reducing distress, especially when the person is unable to cope and respond. They end up focusing on dealing with the pain that comes from it alone. (Mikulincer and Shaver, 2003).

People who underestimate have learned to suppress their emotions at a behavioral level, even though they still experience emotional arousal internally (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2005).

This has a negative effect in that it blocks out strong emotions, both in themselves and in others, thereby affecting their own emotions.

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